CFD Modeling

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Reaction Engineering has over 25 years of experience developing and using advanced, high-fidelity, CFD-based simulation codes for a variety of applications. REI provides world-class modeling using in-house, proprietary Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software tools, in addition to commercial modeling tools such as Fluent. REI couples this state-of-the-art simulation software with experienced engineers to provide unique solutions to complex modeling and simulation problems. CFD solutions benefit clients in several ways, including:

  • Improved understanding of how complex systems operate and interact
  • Evaluation of new technologies
  • Evaluation of proposed system design or operational changes
  • Identification of specific problem areas and problem sources
  • Design or guidance of experiments

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REI believes that the key to successful problem solving with CFD is the combination of superior modeling tools with expert-level modelers. REI has a staff of experienced engineers that can and have addressed a wide range of highly-complex CFD-related problems. The REI staff is committed to providing accurate, timely solutions to each client’s needs, and can tailor the level of client interaction or type of results provided to suit each client’s needs.

REI works with a variety of clients from industry, research organizations and government agencies. This includes system owners and operators, manufacturers, vendors, developers, and researchers. This breadth of experience allows REI to keep abreast of current developments in CFD technology while retaining an understanding of how to solve real-world problems.

For more information regarding REI’s modeling services:
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ADAPT targets combustion applications in which disparate scales are involved or finite rate chemistry effects are critical.  This modeling tool has been developed to specifically include capabilities that account for the physical and chemical mechanisms controlling the combustion process in modern furnaces and boilers equipped with low NOx combustion equipment.

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ADAPT emphasizes improvements in:

  • Adaptive mesh refinement to resolve a wide range of geometry details including highly complex staged burner geometries
  • Robust turbulent mixing submodel to capture fuel/air/flue gas mixing effects
  • Turbulence-chemistry coupling
  • Finite-rate chemical kinetics
  • Reduced mechanisms
  • Turbulent mixing parameters
  • Spectral line weighted gas radiative heat transfer submodels for accurate heat flux predictions
  • Computational efficiency

Coupling 3-D Radiation, Reaction and CFDbanff2

BANFF is intended for modeling three dimensional reacting and non-reacting flow of gases in geometries. Typical systems modeled include gas-fired utility boilers, waste incinerators and flares. A particular emphasis is placed on pollutant formation and destruction.

CAPABILITIES:

  • Complex three-dimensional geometries
  • Steady state, laminar or turbulent flows with/without relaminarization
  • Mixing and reaction of multiple fuels
  • Full coupling between turbulent fluid mechanics, radiative and convective heat transfer, and chemical reactions
  • Radiative heat transfer for absorbing-emitting, turbulent, sooting media
  • NOx/SOx formation and destruction
  • Variable thermal boundary conditions including adiabatic, thermal resistance, “heat exchanger”
  • Soot

APPLICATIONS:

  • Burner and furnace design
  • Chemical process heaters
  • Reboilers
  • Flares
  • Waste incineration
  • Pollutant formation and destruction
  • SNCR
  • Radiation in participating media
  • Computational fluid dynamics

ALGORITHMS:

  • Robust, accurate, iterative solvers to extract the non-linear coupling between turbulent fluid mechanics
  • Gas phase reaction chemistry (including NOx)
  • Heat transfer (particularly radiation)
  • Turbulent fluctuations are accounted for by computing statistical distributions for reaction and radiation properties with several different mixing models (prescribed pdf, eddy dissipation concept)
  • Reaction and radiation calculations (discrete-ordinates) can include any number of chemical species

Coupling 3-D Multiphase Reaction, Radiation and CFDglacier3

GLACIER is intended for modeling three dimensional reacting and non-reacting two-phase flow of gases and particles or droplets in complex geometries. Typical applications include coal-fired utility boilers, metallurgical processing furnaces, rotary kilns, and decoking process heaters. Particular emphasis is placed on combustion and gasification of pulverized coal and on pollutant formation and destruction.

CAPABILITIES:

  • Complex three-dimensional geometries
  • Polydispersed phases of gases and particles, droplets or slurries with full mass, momentum and energy coupling between phases
  • Multiple reaction rate processes for liquid vaporization, coal devolatization and heterogeneous particle reactions
  • Steady state, laminar or turbulent flows
  • Mixing and reaction of multiple fuels
  • Full coupling between turbulent fluid mechanics, radiative and convective heat transfer, and chemical reactions
  • Radiative heat transfer for scattering-absorbing-emitting, turbulent, sooting media
  • NOx/SOx formation and destruction
  • Variable thermal boundary conditions including adiabatic, thermal resistance, “heat exchanger”
  • Prediction of particle trajectories, concentrations and dispersion
  • Slagging, particle deposition
  • Soot

APPLICATIONS:

  • Burner and furnace design
  • Coal combustion and gasification
  • Cyclone barrels & other metallurgical processes
  • Coal slurries, liquid sprays
  • Waste incineration
  • Diffusion flames
  • Pollutant formation and destruction
  • SNCR
  • Radiation in participating media
  • Computational fluid dynamics

ALGORITHMS:

  • Robust, accurate, iterative solvers to extract the non-linear coupling between turbulent fluid mechanics
  • Gas phase reaction chemistry (including NOx)
  • Heat transfer (particularly radiation)
  • Particle phase reaction
  • Turbulent particle dispersion
  • Particle-wall or heat transfer surface interactions
  • Particle/fluid interphase coupling is included through a moving-Eulerian particle cloud tracking and source distribution technique
  • Computations of turbulent fluctuations include statistical distributions for all reaction and radiation properties
  • Reaction and radiation calculations can include any number of chemical species

REI doesn’t just solve NOx problems; we work with our clients to optimize furnace performance in many different industrial applications. Our state-of-the-art models give us the ability to manage LOI, corrosion and slagging.

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LOI

Combustion modifications for NOx control in coal-fired boilers can increase the unburned carbon (UBC) in the ash, as measured by an increase in loss-on-ignition (LOI) in the ash. Increases in LOI reduce combustion efficiency and can have negative impact on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) performance and sale of the fly ash.

REI’s 3D, multi-phase, reacting CFD codes have been combined with an advanced model of char burnout accounting for the effects of thermal annealing and coal heterogeneity. As a result, REI’s models are used to predict unburned carbon levels in fly ash, as a result of the effects of coal type and operating conditions.

Corrosion

Utilities with low-NOx firing systems would like to quantify the increased potential for waterwall wastage when evaluating strategies involving combustion modifications. A decision-making tool is needed to quantify the effect of these modifications on wastage rates.

REI performed computational simulations on several utility boilers (tangential, wall-fired and cyclone) with the goal of understanding and addressing corrosion difficulties related to combustion difficulties related to combustion modifications for the reduction of NOx emissions. Units evaluated include both subcritical and supercritical units.

REI has coupled corrosion monitoring technology with CFD analysis to develop a Corrosion Management System that can effectively monitor and anticipate corrosion behavior in combustion systems.

Slagging

Deposition of ash in coal-fired boilers reduces heat transfer and may increase NOx emissions and/or corrosion. Excessive slagging can be expensive for utilities in terms of outages (planned and unplanned) and boiler de-rating.

REI couples 3D multi-phase CFD models of full-scale boilers with sophisticated models for ash deposition and deposit heat transfer. The result is a unique capability to predict deposit initiation and growth in a coal-fired boiler.

Contact us for information on how we can help.

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Configured Fireside Simulators (CFS) are designed for use by engineers who are not experts in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFS gives the real-world engineer the tools needed to optimize and analyze complex furnaces and boilers. CFS models are tailored to the customer’s furnace or boiler and accessed through an intuitive Graphical User Interface. The underlying CFD engine uses REI’s robust, state-of-the-art combustion models.

CFS models are available for:

  • Utility and Industrial Boilers
  • Chemical Process & Ethylene-cracking furnaces
  • Rotary Kilns, Blast furnaces, Smelters, Stokers, Thermal oxidizers, Incinerators, and Flares

Typical applications include:

  • Low NOx firing systems
  • Co-firing coal, gas, oil, biomass
  • Fuel blending and switching
  • Burner balancing and zonal firing
  • Staged air injection and oxygen injection
  • NOx control strategies (SNCR, RRI, SCR, FGR, FLGR)
  • Corrosion
  • Air Toxics

REI’s computational models emphasize the coupling between turbulent fluid mechanics, gas and particle phase reactions, radiation, turbulent particle dispersion, and NOx chemistry. Some of the features that can be built into a CFS tool include: CBK char burnout kinetics; char nitrogen chemistry that includes the influence of local free stream NO concentration; pyrite oxidation and depositions; kinetically limited gas-phase sulfur chemistry; transient flow; adaptive grids; design optimization.

Contact us for information on how Configured Software can be applied to your system.